Posts Tagged ‘Functional magnetic resonance imaging’

The contribution of movement activation and inhibition in Parkinson’s Disease

Writing in Journal of Parkinson’s Disease, 05/08/2013 Disbrow EA et al.use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fmri) to look at  circuits within the basal ganglia that coordinate activation and inhibition involved in action selection as well as execution in PD patients. The researchers are from the VA Northern California Health Care System, CA, USA and the Department of Neurology, UC Davis, CA, USA.


Predicting functional improvement following pediatric CIMT

Resting state (RS) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) shown to be reliable predictors of clinical improvement following constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in pediatric patients with chronic hemiplegia due to congenital or acquired brain.
This conclusion was reached by Filippi et al from in San Raffaele University, Department of Neurology Italy in Neurotherapeutics, 04/23/2013


FMRI and insights into degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra in Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease PD results in motor, cognitive, sensory and affective deficits that lead to movement impairment. The mechanism is a degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Dr. van der Vegt JP et al Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Copenhagen University Hospital Denmark present in Brain, 04/04/2013 present evidence that suggests that these deficits are not due to the contaminating effect of dopaminergic treatment. The team do this by testing drug-naive patients with Parkinson’s disease who underwent whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging. They show that the core regions of the meso–cortico–limbic dopaminergic system, including the ventral tegmental area, ventral striatum, and medial orbitofrontal cortex, are already significantly compromised in the early stages of Parkinson’s disease PD.


Clinical freezing of Gait in Parkinson’s Disease

Using  timed ‘up and go’ tasks on together with functional magnetic resonance imaging on parkinsons disease patients has allowed Dr.Shine from the Parkinson’s Disease Research Clinic, Brain and Mind Research Institute to present insights into  the pathophysiology underlying freezing of gait which limits functional walking ability in advanced Parkinson’s disease PD patients. The team are from the University of Sydney, NSW 2050, Australia.

Changes in cortical activity during active exercise practice – brain plasticity stroke and brain injury patients

Listed below are research papers that show changes in cortical activity during active and passive movements and motor imagery in both stroke and brain injury and control subjects. The techniques used to indicate brain plasticity include functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) , magnetoencephalography (MEG) , near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)  and electroencephalography (EEG) .
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
Guye M, Parker GJ, Symms M, Boulby P, Wheeler-Kingshott CA, Salek-Haddadi A,
Barker GJ, Duncan JS: Combined functional MRI and tractography to demonstrate the connectivity of the human primary motor cortex in vivo. NeuroImage 2003, 19(4):1349–
Newton JM, Sunderland A, Gowland PA: fMRI signal decreases in ipsilateral primary
motor cortex during unilateral hand movements are related to duration and side of
movement. NeuroImage 2005, 24(4):1080–1087.
Stippich C, Ochmann H, Sartor K: Somatotopic mapping of the human primary  sensorimotor cortex during motor imagery and motor execution by functional magnetic  resonance imaging. Neurosci Lett 2002, 331(1):50–54.
Manganotti P, Formaggio E, Storti SF, Avesani M, Acler M, Sala F, Magon S, Zoccatelli
G, Pizzini F, Alessandrini F, Fiaschi A, Beltramello: Steady-state activation in
somatosensory cortex after changes in stimulus rate during median nerve stimulation.
Magn Reson Imaging 2009, 27(9):1175–1186.
Manganotti P, Storti SF, Formaggio E, Acler M, Zoccatelli G, Pizzini FB, Alessandrini F,
Bertoldo A, Toffolo GM, Bovi P, Beltramello A, Moretto G, Fiaschi A: Effect of mediannerve electrical stimulation on BOLD activity in acute ischemic stroke patients. Clin
Neurophysiol 2012, 123(1):142–153.
Ward NS, Brown MM, Thompson AJ, Frackowiak RS: Neural correlates of motor
recovery after stroke: a longitudinal fMRI study. Brain 2003, 126:2476–2496.
Positron emission
tomography (PET) [14,15],
Calautti C, Leroy F, Guincestre JY, Baron JC: Dynamics of motor network
overactivation after striatocapsular stroke: a longitudinal PET study using a fixedperformance paradigm. Stroke 2001, 32:2534–2542.
Weiller C, Jüptner M, Fellows S, Rijntjes M, Leonhardt G, Kiebel S, Müller S, Diener
HC, Thilmann AF: Brain representation of active and passive movements. NeuroImage
1996, 4(2):105–10.
Magnetoencephalography (MEG)
Gallien P, Aghulon C, Durufle A, Petrilli S, de Crouy AC, Carsin M, Toulouse P:
Magnetoencephalography in stroke: a 1-year follow-up study. Eur J Neurol 2003,
Lange R, Nowak H, Haueisen J, Weiller C: Passive finger movement evoked fields in
magnetoencephalography. Exp Brain Res 2001, 136(2):194–199.
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)
Kato H, Izumiyama M, Koizumi H, Takahashi A, Itoyama Y: Near-infrared topography
as a tool to monitor motor reorganization after hemiparetic stroke: a comparison with
functional MRI. Stroke 2002, 33(8):2032–2036.
Electroencephalography (EEG)
Pfurtscheller G, Aranibar A: Event-related cortical desynchronization detected by
power measurement of the scalp EEG. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1977,

Functional magnetic resonance imaging and neuroplasticity correlate to hand function

Published in Neuroradiology Feb 2013 Dr. Yin discuss neuroplasticity and the relationship between functional reorganization and outcomes in hand function after subcortical stroke. The group from Shanghai Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance, Key Laboratory of Brain Function Shanghai China use Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

HandTutor, ArmTutor, LegTutor, plasticity and functional outcome measures

Mary Louise Stepan, 21, used to be a waitress....

Image by The Library of Congress via Flickr

In the March edition of Neurorehabil Neural Repair Dr. Butler and his team from Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine and Atlanta Veterans Administration Medical Center, Atlanta, GA, USA show a correlation between clinical outcome measures, such as the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) and the upper limb portion of the Fugl-Meyer (FM) motor assessment, and neuroimaging techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and blood oxygenation level–dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
Treatment using virtual functional tasks provided by the HandTutor, ArmTutor, LegTutor system have been proven to improve the patients functional ability in neurological and orthopedic injuries and disease.