Changes in cortical activity during active exercise practice – brain plasticity stroke and brain injury patients

Listed below are research papers that show changes in cortical activity during active and passive movements and motor imagery in both stroke and brain injury and control subjects. The techniques used to indicate brain plasticity include functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) , magnetoencephalography (MEG) , near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)  and electroencephalography (EEG) .
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
Guye M, Parker GJ, Symms M, Boulby P, Wheeler-Kingshott CA, Salek-Haddadi A,
Barker GJ, Duncan JS: Combined functional MRI and tractography to demonstrate the connectivity of the human primary motor cortex in vivo. NeuroImage 2003, 19(4):1349–
Newton JM, Sunderland A, Gowland PA: fMRI signal decreases in ipsilateral primary
motor cortex during unilateral hand movements are related to duration and side of
movement. NeuroImage 2005, 24(4):1080–1087.
Stippich C, Ochmann H, Sartor K: Somatotopic mapping of the human primary  sensorimotor cortex during motor imagery and motor execution by functional magnetic  resonance imaging. Neurosci Lett 2002, 331(1):50–54.
Manganotti P, Formaggio E, Storti SF, Avesani M, Acler M, Sala F, Magon S, Zoccatelli
G, Pizzini F, Alessandrini F, Fiaschi A, Beltramello: Steady-state activation in
somatosensory cortex after changes in stimulus rate during median nerve stimulation.
Magn Reson Imaging 2009, 27(9):1175–1186.
Manganotti P, Storti SF, Formaggio E, Acler M, Zoccatelli G, Pizzini FB, Alessandrini F,
Bertoldo A, Toffolo GM, Bovi P, Beltramello A, Moretto G, Fiaschi A: Effect of mediannerve electrical stimulation on BOLD activity in acute ischemic stroke patients. Clin
Neurophysiol 2012, 123(1):142–153.
Ward NS, Brown MM, Thompson AJ, Frackowiak RS: Neural correlates of motor
recovery after stroke: a longitudinal fMRI study. Brain 2003, 126:2476–2496.
Positron emission
tomography (PET) [14,15],
Calautti C, Leroy F, Guincestre JY, Baron JC: Dynamics of motor network
overactivation after striatocapsular stroke: a longitudinal PET study using a fixedperformance paradigm. Stroke 2001, 32:2534–2542.
Weiller C, Jüptner M, Fellows S, Rijntjes M, Leonhardt G, Kiebel S, Müller S, Diener
HC, Thilmann AF: Brain representation of active and passive movements. NeuroImage
1996, 4(2):105–10.
Magnetoencephalography (MEG)
Gallien P, Aghulon C, Durufle A, Petrilli S, de Crouy AC, Carsin M, Toulouse P:
Magnetoencephalography in stroke: a 1-year follow-up study. Eur J Neurol 2003,
Lange R, Nowak H, Haueisen J, Weiller C: Passive finger movement evoked fields in
magnetoencephalography. Exp Brain Res 2001, 136(2):194–199.
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)
Kato H, Izumiyama M, Koizumi H, Takahashi A, Itoyama Y: Near-infrared topography
as a tool to monitor motor reorganization after hemiparetic stroke: a comparison with
functional MRI. Stroke 2002, 33(8):2032–2036.
Electroencephalography (EEG)
Pfurtscheller G, Aranibar A: Event-related cortical desynchronization detected by
power measurement of the scalp EEG. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1977,

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